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Confirmation of the hybridization of Chiroxiphia Cabanis, 1847 and Antilophia Reichenbach, 1850 (Passeriformes: Pipridae) using molecular markers

Wagner Brito Alves, Ciro Albano, Weber Andrade de Girão Silva, Juliana Araripe, Pericles Sena do Rego


Events of hybridization between species of different manakin genera are well documented, although the relative contribution of the species remains unclear, as well as the factors determining the occurrence of these events. In this context, the use of molecular markers has become increasingly important for the reliable diagnosis of the species involved and the understanding of the process. In 2008 two unusual manakins were observed in the Ibiapaba Highlands of the Brazilian state of Ceará (municipality of Tianguá). Their morphological traits indicated that they were male hybrids of Chiroxiphia and an Antilophia species, despite the fact that neither of the two species of Antilophia had been found in the Ibiapaba region. In order to confirm the hybridization and identify the species involved, the present study was based on the analysis of samples taken from a supposed hybrid and a specimen of C. pareola collected in the Ibiapaba Highlands, together with two samples of the two species of the genus Antilophia (A. bokermanni and A. galeata) provided by research collections. Partial sequences of three mitochondrial markers (ND2/COI/16S) and a nuclear intron (I7BF) were obtained to confirm hybridization and identify the contribution of each parent species. Results confirmed that the specimen was a hybrid produced by the crossing of a male Chiroxiphia (C. pareola as most likely species) with a female Antilophia, although it was not possible to identify which species were involved. The confirmation that this hybridization event in the Ibiapaba Highlands involved Antilophia indicates that one of the two species of this genus occur in this region, which may thus constitute a previously unknown hybrid zone between two manakin species. 

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